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Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology

Oral pathology is a group of diseases or conditions that affect the teeth, mouth, jaws, and its surrounding structures. These include growths, cysts, and infections that can affect your health. Sometimes this abnormal tissue growth may be cancerous (malignant), which might require surgery or further action to stem its spread.

Types of Infections and Diseases that Affect Your Oral Health


Types of Infections and Diseases that Affect Your Oral Health


This includes bacteria, fungus, or virus. Some symptoms might include having bad breath, and running a fever. 


  • Bacterial Infections
  • Common bacterial infections include gingivitis, a common gum disease causing the gums to be red, inflamed and bleed easily


  • Fungal Infections
  • The most common fungal infection is oral candidiasis, and usually occurs in individuals whose ability to combat infectious diseases is compromised. The known symptoms are the appearance of white patches in the mouth. 


  • Viral Infections
    • Common viral infections include herpes simplex.


Growths and Ulcers 

Sometimes excessive bone, gum tissue, fibrous tissue can cause alveolar ridges to be formed abnormally. 


If sores, ulcers or lumps appear on the lips or in the mouth, and remain unhealed for over three weeks, it is highly recommended that a dentist is consulted in order to determine and rule out cancerous growths. Other signs of this may be traces of blood in saliva, or some numbness of your chin or lower lip. 


A cyst is a closed, abnormal sac of tissue within your body containing liquid, air, or other semi-solid substances. They most commonly occur in your jaw bone than in any other bone in your body. You may develop a cyst in your jaw due to many reasons, including infection from a bad tooth, gum inflammation over an erupting tooth or from certain medical conditions. 

Signs and Symptoms of Oral Cancer

Typical signs include sores or lumps on the lips or in the mouth.
  • White or red patches on your tongue, gums, or tonsils; 
  • Feeling like your throat is scratchy, or there is a lump and it is difficult to swallow; 
  • Difficulty carrying out daily activities associated with moving your mouth, tongue, jaw, including eating, swallowing, and talking; 
  • Numbness or pain in your mouth, lips, tongue; 
  • Unexplained changes in your voice.

Signs and Symptoms of Oral Cancer


What Increases the Risk of Oral Cancer?

The engagement in certain vices significantly increases the risk of cancer cells forming in the mouth and its surrounding structures. These include: 
  • Exposure to harmful carcinogenic chemicals from heavy smoking, and tobacco use ;
  • Heavy consumption of alcohol; 
  • Smoking of marijuana; 
  • Increased exposure to UV light can cause lip cancers.


The combination of smoking and drinking further increases the risks. Compared to females, males also have been known to be at a higher risk.

What Increases the Risk of Oral Cancer?


Procedure of Screening and Biopsy

Stage 1: Consultation

  • Treatment differs according to the type of disease or condition. For an infection, usually, antibiotics are administered.

  • Whenever an oral lesion occurs, it is highly recommended that a diagnosis is sought. Samples can be collected from this using several methods, including exfoliative cytology, incisional biopsy, fine-needle aspiration - and sent to a pathologist.

  • The pathologist then carries out tests to determine if the tissue contains any cancerous tissue and if a provider needs to be brought in, and a treatment plan developed.


Stage 2: Taking a Biopsy

  • Exfoliative Cytology

A number of cells are scraped off the lesion, and these are placed on a microscope slide.

  • Incisional Biopsy

This is done through an excision, a surgical procedure, where a small piece of the tissue is removed. 

  • Fine-Needle Aspiration

A thin needle is inserted into the lump and a small tissue sample is extracted.

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Why Choose Nuffield Dental?

Nuffield Dental is a one-stop, multi-disciplinary dental care centre. At Nuffield, we put you first. We believe in providing personalised service for each patient.

Dental care

Nuffield Dental is a one-stop, multi-disciplinary dental care centre. Here at Nuffield Dental, we pride ourselves of our personalised oral care for each and every one of our patients. We need to make sure you get all the help you need to make your dental procedures comfortable, accessible and seamless.

Oral Cancer Screening, Biopsy & Excision

Our dentists have been accredited in oral pathologic surgery for 20+ years. We have accredited dental providers who are skilled in the area of dental implant surgery.

Oral Cancer Screening and Excision Costs in Singapore?

Please call one of our Nuffield Dental clinics in Singapore for pricing details.

Call 65 6833 4353
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